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Age Hardening

(Precipitation Hardening) A process of increasing the hardness and strength by the precipitation of particles of a phase from a supersaturated solid solution alloy. The hardening cycle usually consists of heating or annealing at a temperature sufficiently high to maintain solid solution, rapid cooling, or quenching to retain the supersaturated solid solution anneal to effect the precipitation.


A process involving heating and cooling designed to effect: 1) softening of a cold-worked structure by recrystallizing or grain growth or both; 2) softening of an age-hardening alloy or causing a nearly complete precipitation of the second phase in relatively coarse form; 3) softening of certain age-hardenable alloys by dissolving the second phase and cooling rapidly enough to obtain a supersaturated solution; 4) relief of residual stress.


Is the thin ridge of roughness, left by a cutting operation such as slitting, shearing, blanking or sawing.


(Edgewise Curvation) The lateral departure of the edge from a straight line, which may be unidirectional or reversing; in the latter case, sometimes called snaking.

Clad Metal

A sophisticated composite of two or more metals, effectively combining the best qualities of the different metals.

Coil Set

(Longitudinal Curl) A unidirectional departure from longitudinal flatness.

Cold Working

The process of changing the form or cross-section of a piece of metal at a temperature below the softening or recrystallization point, but commonly at or about room temperature. It includes rolling, drawing, pressing and stretching.

Composite Material

A composite material is made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure, differentiating composites from mixtures and solid solutions.


The variation in thickness across the product from edge to center or edge to edge


The transverse departure of the concave surface of the strip from a straight line from edge to edge.

Electrical Conductivity

A measure of the efficiency with which atoms in a metal transmit electrons, i.e. a metals ability to convey an electric current. Usually referenced to OFHC copper.


The permanent extension of a specimen which has been stretched to rupture in a tension test. The percentage elongation is an indication of ductility.


The degree to which a surface of a flat product approaches a plane.


A solid polyhedral (or many sided) crystal consisting of groups of atoms bonded together in a regular geometric pattern. In mill practice grains are usually determined microscopically, on an etched plane surface of the metal.

Grain Size

The average diameter of grains, usually determined microscopically, on an etched plane surface of the metal.


The resistance of metal to plastic deformation by indentation. The most common method of measurement is Rockwell. Other methods are Brinell, Scleroscope, Tukon and Vickers.

Orange Peel Surface

The surface roughness resulting from working metal of large grain size. The surface is similar in texture to an orange peel.


The process of passing metal between rolls under pressure to reduce its cross-section.


Securing the bond at elevated temperatures where diffusion causes the metal atoms of the bonded components to intermingle.


A continuous machining using a form tool that cuts a trough in the surface of base metal strip stock into which the cladding metal is inlayed and subsequently bonded.

Solder Reflow

A process which produces solder bonded to a base metal in a specific location. Parts fabricated from this material can therefore be solder assembled simply by applying flux and heat.


The condition produced in a metal by thermal and/or mechanical treatment resulting in characteristic structure and mechanical properties.

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